A Massacre Unequalled

It becomes undeniably clear, considering the evidence, that the innumerable ways in which the human species exploit nonhuman sentient beings on our shared planet are having a profoundly detrimental effect on sustainable world development. In fact, the massive abuse, subjugation and killing of nonhuman animals has been contributing in large part to climate disasters, threatening the balance of biodiversity, decimating clean water sources and air quality spreading disease, hindering sustainability of food availability, and has long been a rooted genesis of moral indifference and violence within our societies.

The aim of this article is to demonstrate how imperative it is to not only address the seriousness of this injustice, but to create laws to effectively enact change to curb these destructive effects and horrific cruelties. We feel there is overwhelming evidence that there is no justification, no moral ground, no practical reason, to continue denying the need to fully protect the inherent rights to which nonhuman animals as sentient feeling beings deserve. Not to mention how crucial this is to preventing the continuation of a mass extinction of life which could reach proportions the likes of which have not occurred in 66 million years, and could include the demise of mankind. These sentient beings, to whom we have caused such outlandishly cruel subjugation, are long overdue their freedom from our tyranny.

Humanity’s Cruel Exploitation of Nonhuman Beings Must End

Bee On Flower

Never in the history of our world has there been death and slaughter to equal the current rate of loss of animal life in this day and age, the age in which we now live.

When we consider the purposes of laws, is not the reasoning behind creating laws to protect life and to preserve freedoms? However, in devising sustainable goals for our world to survive, have we humans fully considered the other sentient species inhabiting the Earth (1), their home as much as ours? Sadly we have not. (2) Our laws only consider nonhuman animals as “commodities” for our uses, personal “possessions”, or as “pests” inconvenient to the expansion of our human domains, and yet, beyond questionable efforts to preserve wildlife species from extinction or basic welfare for specified domestics, they do not come close to protecting their rights. This is wrong, unjust, unnecessary, and in fact, this attitude only foils progress in preserving our world. This approach is not only unethical, it is greatly hindering the future of our shared survival, a survival that greatly depends on all living species. (3)

From the very first interactions of human beings and nonhuman beings, whom humanity has come to term “Animals”, although biologically we are all animals, humans have subjugated them to roles of companion, laborer, unwitting entertainer, trophy, test subject, food and apparel source etc. We have consigned them, their body fluids (4) and body parts, to our possession (5) defined as “products”.(6) We have callously enslaved them in unnatural and absolute torturous lives (7), to be subdued in such “service” (8), and “consumed” relentlessly in mind-boggling numbers. (9)

Deer In Forest

Our human centric exploitation of animals has so encroached upon wild habitat (10), throwing elaborately balanced ecosystems off-kilter (11) through our ever-expanding civilization and its “waste products” to a point of delivering hundreds to thousands of nonhuman species into the absolute void of extinction. (12) We have done this while causing extreme hardship for others (13) living in an ever-shrinking wild (14), who if not for their adaptability, resilience, and an incredible will to survive, would have given up to that void as well. With little thanks to us, many now stand on its edge teetering upon legislative imbalance. (15)

Think of the number of them we consume as food; over 150 BILLION per year (16) of land (17) and sea. (18) Think of how many we force “breed” to be slaughtered (19) ostensibly to sustain our diet (20), or to be subjected to repetitive agonies as “scientific” test subjects (21) for HUMAN use product applications when their physiological body makeup so greatly differs from our own that this no longer can be justified. (22) The FACTS being that we now have superior alternative means to test products and medicines for our physiological use. We have domesticated and now facilitate the mass breeding of animals as companions for profit (23), their numbers multiplying in abject neglect. (24) While bred to be bound to roles as consoler, playmate, assistant, protector, educator, entertainer, while so many millions are discarded (25) mostly because of human ignorance (26), laziness, and greed. In light of all this, you can say humanity for the most has looked upon nonhuman animals as disposable (27), to use and discard. Indeed, unmistakably many humans do think so (28), even though most would claim they do so unconsciously as a form of selective indifference. Thus there is the need for serious education and complete transparency (29), a morally conscientious examination, as we can no longer accept nor afford willful denial, because only implementing basic welfare protection laws is not enough. (30)

For many of those meant to range freely in the natural world, they live instead in a world of enslavement, torture and death, all for the sociological benefit and monetary gain of mankind.

Bird On A Twig

The various sentient species (31) in the wildernesses of this world, those we know as “Wildlife”, have not only had their habitat so devastatingly encroached upon (32), they have been exploited for their internal fluids (33) and body parts (34) for everything from ”medicinal” concoctions (35) to wall hangings and furniture (36). They are also cruelly enslaved for our “entertainment” (37) by brutally being forced to “perform” unnatural acts that put them at risk of serious injury (38). They live their entire lives between performing these acts in unnatural environments (39) most often behind bars, for all purposes extremely confining and torturously boring to the point of developing psychotic behaviors (40) to the extent of self-mutilation. (41) This very much is the case when these wild species are raised and kept in zoos for “educational purposes”, as well as being farmed for lab testing and for fashion.

In the fur “industry” (42) animals are stacked in small cages, isolated and not able to act naturally they usually go insane. (43) It is a common fur trade “technique” (44) to kill them by anal electrocution to preserve the “sheen” of their coat to gain a higher price when sold in the fashion markets. (45) Many wild species are often captured for various purposes as young (46) and torn from their mothers (47), and when adults are hunted their young are often left to fend on their own. (48) Studies show indiscriminate hunting throws off the balance of a species natural order often detrimentally affecting the ecosystems that depend on them. (49)

To deny these sentient beings evolved to live in a vast wilderness their freedom, to contain them in such a manner for these superfluous purposes (50), to indiscriminately kill them for sport and “harvest” their bodies as “trophies” so defies logic to a conscientious mind it is beyond comprehension. (51) However, these are only some of the ways Humanity flagrantly encroaches upon the natural world and its inhabitants.

Evidence of human destruction within the oceans is undeniable. Human habits and human pollutants are killing indiscriminately at a markedly disturbing rate.

Our oceans are suffering (52), the inhabitants therein are suffering, some actually suffocating in the very environment in which they were meant to breathe freely (53), in voids aptly named “dead zones”. (54) The ocean dwellers are ingesting products (55) created for OUR purposes (56), much of pwhich will remain floating in sea waters for hundreds of years to come (57), and it is killing them by the billions. (58) You would think that tons of toxins trickling from streams and rivers (59) into these huge bodies, diluted in such a vast amount of water would come to no harm, and in the beginning that’s what we were told, yet the one place where our destructive tendencies is completely undeniable is our oceans. (60) Yet the oceans are proof of these dire effects of the Anthropocene that cannot be denied. (61)

Through the results of incessant drilling oil spills from decades past still mire the waters (62), it does not simply go away (63), just like the plastics that are derived from oil. (64) Billions continue to die (65) as oil is absorbed into the feathers and gills of unsuspecting wildlife (66), ever-present it continues to kill. (67) What of all the potential ills, the inevitable damage (68), from drilling and fracking for oil in and near the oceans (69), an act that should never have been considered. Yet in a global economic system driven by “profit” over preservation of life, disastrous results are too readily dismissed. (70) What profit then can come from potentially splintering the bedrock of the Earth where continental shelves lose their delicate stability. (71) What dire results are we willing to pay for that? (72)

The fishing industry has caused countless sea dwellers to be caught up in netting (73), yet vast number are discarded, not being the desired “catch” of the day, while they all lay helpless on boat decks writhing in panic unable to breathe (74), the undesired “trash” (75) thrown back into the sea their corpses sinking into the depths. Today the concept of factory farming has migrated to consign the oceans fish to similarly constrained confinement as land farmed animals. (76) Trillions of nonhumans die from our rape of the oceans (77) , billions we will never see again, their kind gone forever into that blank void of extinction. (78) It is not only those in the wild who feel the painful constraints of human subjugation, it is also those we have selected over the course of hundreds of years to enhance our own existence in a myriad of ways as agricultural “commodities”, these species inevitably suffer horribly from the many ways we have exploited them.

In playing god by creating species of “livestock” only to callously take their lives away, mankind has truly become blind to the meaning of compassion and abandoned morality in his apathy and indifference to life.

A decidedly offensive abuse repeatedly inflicted on nature by human entities is control through manipulation. Animal agriculture has created its own version of language to obfuscate the reality of food. (79) Just as thousands of years ago human-controlled breeding manipulated the DNA of wild aurochs, wild boars, and wild jungle fowls (80), animal agriculture not only obfuscates language, they seek to own it. (81) Thus in the animal industrial complex’s obfuscation of language cows, pigs, and chickens cease to be instead becoming steak, ham, hot wings, omelets, as the abbreviated lives of male calves instead become veal cutlets, while what was meant as nourishment for a 1,400lb mother’s offspring instead becomes such things as smelly cheese and bowls of ice cream humans consume. However they are termed upon a plate or in a bowl, these sentient beings never choose to end up there, nor do they choose to live a tortured life (82) and experience a terrifying violent death. (83)

Barbed Wire Chicken

It is now evident, as has been practical knowledge throughout history, that there is no need to eat the flesh or fluids of nonhuman beings we term “food” animals to maintain a healthy diet. (84) Vegetarian and vegan diets have proven in many cultures, in many areas of the world, to be a healthy and sustainable means of acquiring a complete nutritional way of living. (85) In fact, many highly reputable medical sources recommend a plant-based diet for optimum health. (86) There is solid evidence that our bodies are not best equipped to eat meat (87), nor were we ever meant to ingest the milk of another mammal other than our own mother’s milk as infants. (88) Thus this becomes a doable challenge we CAN meet to provide plant-based complete nutrition (89) to all our world citizens. It is not only more monetarily cost-effective, (90) it is cost-effective in terms of food safety to prevent disease, and much better for the environment. (91) This IS a sustainable solution to the question of feeding our growing population (92) while maintaining livestock (93) and continuing massive commercial fishing as world food sources (94/95) just is not. (96) Even the question of offering flesh and fluids from living animals (97) to a select few is now a moot point for the future (98) due to the ability to grow animal parts from DNA samples. (99) This can be reproduced (100) without the enslavement (101) and butchering of nonhuman animals. (102) Knowing what we know, there can be no reason to even debate the point (103) of continuing to support “livestock production” (104), nor can we maintain the delusion of “humane meat” to justify (105) killing healthy beings who do not want to die. (106)

Why do we continue to ingest into our bodies (107) the toxins (108) associated with raising and “processing” (109) nonhuman animals (110) for consuming their flesh (111) and fluids make us sick (112), creating fertile possibilities of cancers (113) and consistently spreading illness? (114) Why this futility when we are finding, due to overuse of antibiotics (115) in these massive CAFOs (Concentrated Animal Feed Operations) (116) to combat the unavoidable spread (117) of contaminations (118), that we now experience antibiotic resistance (119) and realize the advent of “superbugs” which cannot be cured? (120) This absurdity is enough! (121) Why are we ingesting cancer agents? (122)

It’s obvious these powerful “industries” (123) are failing us. While polluting the above-ground waterways (124) with “enhancement” chemicals (125) released through unfathomable amounts of dung and viscera (126), they are verging on depleting underground aquifers (127) all to grow feed for “livestock” on a massive amount of acreage. (128) These industries are spewing extremely detrimental aerosols into the atmosphere to intolerable extents (129), and are extremely skilled at evading their responsibility. (130) They should as well bear responsibility (131) for child labor when these corporations accrue land in underdeveloped countries where families must see their children toil to harvest animal feed crops while they go hungry. (132) The powerful livestock industry holds sway over politicians (133) and hides itself purposefully (134) to avoid doing the right thing (135) though doing so at this juncture must bring its own justifiable demise. What then DOES it mean to aspire to be ethically industrious? (136)

What of those who commit the slaughter, shedding the blood, decapitating the bodies, who package up the ribs, shanks, breasts, thighs, all the body parts and internal fluids that end up in the “meat” and “dairy” case of your grocery store.

It is no wonder why there is a shortage (137) of willing workers (138) to fill positions (139) in these “meat processing” plants. (140) So now US legislators of states with high numbers of CAFOs seek to change child labor laws in favor of hiring minors to fill those vacant positions. (141) Workers are being inundated day after day (142) with the slaughter of sentient beings (143), who are aware of their fate (144), and the workers know (145) that the animals are aware of the worker’s role in that fate. (146) One could say this is an apt environment for most humans to experience moral conflicts (147), often leading to Moral Indifference. (148) In fact, studies of this disturbing human experience (149) have deemed it a very specific form of Traumatic Stress (150), a unique type of P.I.T.S. (Perpetration-Induced Traumatic Stress). (151) In this form of P.I.T.S., the worker is not the victim of the attack, but the “casual participant” of the actual cause of attack to the victim, the most extreme type of attack in fact. Because this is not just a threat of harm but indeed the ultimate harm one could image visiting upon another sentient living being (152), an emotionally distraught being, fully aware, as the slaughterhouse worker is aware (153) of not only being a direct party to their death (154) but to dismembering their bodies while covered in the victim’s blood, sometimes when the animal is still alive. (155) To “perform” these acts day after day on a fast-paced assembly line (156) that is akin to a satanic version of a morgue. (157) This Moral Conflict combined with the pressure to keep the pace triggers in the slaughterhouse worker a Moral Indifference to life. (158) Controlled studies have shown that shortly after one of these “processing” plants opens, substance abuse rates, crime rates, and domestic violence rates (159) dramatically increase (160), (as does human illness and disease) (161) in these “out of the way” communities (162) where the industries purposely locate them.

Calf In Dark Stall

This is a horrible situation for most slaughterhouse workers (163), most poor people of color, many being immigrants (164), some with limited visas, some illegal (165), and a great many more brought in illegally by human labor traffickers (166), the end result unbeknownst to the trafficked victim(167), holding them hostage (168) in this horrific work environment (169), all of this well known to the industry hierarchy. (170) Where this industry is unjust and cruel to both human and nonhuman victims, there is an even more personal animal abuse by human neglect and intent that often involves a differing yet just as heinous betrayal of trust.

Even when we choose to call some animals companions, many humans lack the understanding of such a commitment selfishly leaving millions of those unsuspecting species, whose DNA we’ve so carefully “selected”, to terrible fates of abuse.

Cat At Window

Though some will argue that we care deeply for our companion animals (171), and many, many of us truly do, still so many of those will lavishly spend their time and money on one species (172) while eating another without thought (173), except to think how juicy the “steak” (animal muscle) off the grill tasted. (174) Though many nations offer some level of lawful protections for various companion animals (175), they offer little to no protections to those animals deemed “food” (176), except to “preserve” the health of the living “food product”, nor much if any protection (177) for “test” animals (178) tortured in labs though they may be the same species as “companion” animals. (179/180)

Yet even those animal beings we keep as companions for comfort and aid (181), sport (182), entertainment (183), and work (184), have succumbed to horrid misuse (185) and abuse from varying levels of subversion (186) to vicious and violent attacks (187) by the human beings who professed to “care” for them who abandon them. (188) In many areas pet animals also suffer horrendously from neglect of any compassionate consideration (189), and then humans inappropriately try to make domestic pets of wildlife. (190) Still, many equine domestics are slaughtered after being used up in the entertainment industries. (191) Many more animals are being cruelly killed by means of poisoning or brutally beaten to death by the thousands. (192) Be they domestic strays, feral, or of the wild, animals are brutally exterminated in this way when deemed to be “pests”. (193) There is so much abuse of homeless companions (194) and similarly senseless persecution of wild animals (195). Millions of gentle donkeys sold and butchered for their skin (196). Dogs and cats bred on “meat” farms, or stolen and sold off to those humans who would torture them to death (197), by boiling them alive, blowtorching them alive, or skinning them alive (198), under the reason defying belief (199) that their tortured psyche (200) creates an effect in their dead muscle that upon consuming their “meat” would make you cool in summer and virile in bed. (201)

Dog In Woods

In expanding on “The Link” between the violence of humans towards nonhuman beings, even when sanctioned by governments, and its transference to humans committing violent acts upon other humans, we find this link relevant for further consideration in all areas of animal exploitation.

The first of many reports on the relation between humans abusing nonhuman animals and human violent crime (202) came from studying mass murderers who had histories of violence toward animals. (203) Unfortunately, this has become an obvious pattern within humanity on many levels (204), a most horrid cycle that centers on violence and death visited upon nonhumans with an extended effect of humans being violent to other humans. (205)

Let’s take a closer examination of violence humans perpetuate upon nonhuman beings (206), and how that can cycle back to human targeted violence and crime. We should consider the cruel testing done to Nonhuman Beings such as live vivisections (207), brain and spinal cord conscious severing (208), which may seem like science fiction yet is all too real (209). These torturous experiments are sanctioned by governments and often paid for with citizen’s tax dollars (210), more is financed by corporate interests performed within universities and private for-profit specialty laboratories. What your imagination displays, though tipped off by horror movies, is not half of what happens in reality. (211)

What kind of human psyche is capable of conducting this type of “experimentation”? (212) What level of PITS does the human psyche experience, and in turn what type of psychotic effect does it release upon the community? (213) Why isn’t law enforcement tracking arrests and convictions of animal “experimenters” who may be committing violent crimes whose background included conducting these “tests” on Nonhuman Beings that defy any moral justification. There are many alternatives to animal testing now (214), so why continue abusing animals while this method of “experiment” only hinders viable science advancement. (215) In no way do we mean for this to imply that the practice of science in and of itself is not a viable and essential contributor to the forward progress and health of our societies, to the preservation of the natural world, and indeed good solid science is a crucial component of the case we present to you here.

Yet even as we thought to have exposed the worst of humanity’s cruel subjugation of the animal kingdom; (216) the massive killing in animal agriculture (217), the misguided culling of wild animals under the guise of species conservation (218), the rape of the ocean dwellers and their habitat (219), the terrible cruelty in the science labs (220), the callousness of animal sports (221) and the abandonment of companions (222), the violence cycle (223), and the vindictiveness of the dog and cat torture meat trade (224), there is still more. In the last several years, there have been heinous atrocities of extremely violent nonhuman animal abuse, viciousness unseen before by the mass public until the advent of internet networking. (225) The perpetrators may even be teenagers or young adults, seeking attention by posting what have been termed “crush” videos (226). This also includes photos and video of bestiality and zoophile pornography (227), which to the distress of law enforcement agencies (228) has been widespread on social media platforms (229), with a large network of viewers and a backlash of domestic and sexual violence from rapists and pedophiles. (230)

We could say this link of violence goes one step more, for as long as Humanity views Nonhuman Animals as “resources” and “commodities” disputes over “possession” will arise even to the point of war.

Horse Eating Hay

Though this pattern of violence, aptly named “The Link” (231), currently is being focused on an individual level, one could say it also has been seen in history to be perpetrated on a massive scale, although the abuses to the victims take on a different caste. Historically massive violence was perpetuated through war, many fought over resources and commodities such as oil, precious metals (232), and of course others fought over animals as transport, laborers, and also food resources (233). If the world stays on its present course basic food commodities again will be in dispute (234), along with the lands able to sustain life. (235) With future predictions as they are today (236), “livestock” and other food resources could very soon once again become the catalyst for massive worldwide conflicts (237), along with the more obvious, a dire need for freshwater access. (238)

We’ve already seen this gruesome nightmare raising its head in trade embargoes (239) and trade wars of late between the U.S. and China (240). The die is cast, the shadows looming, as swine flu decimates China’s pig stock (241) and the H1N1 virus takes human tolls. Chinese interests, in turn, have purchased one of the largest U.S. pork-producing companies (242), and purchased U.S. croplands (243) for growing feed crops. These foreign land purchases (244) also give foreign interests opportunities to freely tap one of the world’s largest underground aquifers beneath U.S. soil. (245) This is but one example, many other countries can and have clashed within similar scenarios. (246) As long as humanity insists on speciesist definitions of nonhuman animals, persisting in viewing them, their body parts and internal fluids as “commodities”, this seems an invitation culminating in violent disaster. (247) Whereas current clashes seem to center around oil, the future could flip the coin to land on animals, as well as clean water, the disputed resources plunging us into another world war. (248) Is this then the inevitable pattern of mankind, to perpetuate violence by killing other species before killing each other?

When considering the origins of sadistic violence in man’s perceived “dominion” over others, it becomes obvious where the root cause lay when reviewing the history of mankind’s treatment of other animal species.

It is fairly well known (249), though not severely acted upon judiciously (250), that violence perpetrated by humans upon nonhuman beings leads to violence toward humans. (251) This goes far back in our history to the extent that in ancient times, in many civilizations, a boy became a man, a warrior, only upon the act of killing another sentient being; sometimes a human or sometimes a nonhuman. (252) In fact, in an archaeological discovery in Russia, evidence was found that young boys of an ancient civilization having raised a “pet” dog from a puppy, would in a ceremonial transition from puberty to adulthood be required to murder his beloved companion. (253) This we can presume, hardened him to the callous attitude of the Cossack or Viking warrior judged by his ability to viciously cut down the life of a being who served at his side as a devoted, loving companion throughout his childhood. We found this piece of research when asking the question, ”When did this callous human attitude toward nonhuman animals (254) first appear in our history?”.

This question leads further into the realms of sacrifice (255), extremely brutal acts, often in preparation of battle to both appease the gods for victory and to invoke that berserker killing frenzy in the warriors. Sacrificial victims were sometimes humans, yet most often unwitting nonhuman animals (256) were subjected to being burned alive (257), dismembered whilst screaming in agony, and even buried alive to “honor” a fallen warrior. Throughout history, the sacrifice of nonhumans (258) came about as well to appeal to a god for good weather, abundant crops, fertility, even to bless home and places of worship, and on and on, as if a loving God we might want to believe in would approve of such wanton killing of innocents. (259) Ironically, what humans do to animals today (260) is much the same. (261) It is our belief that we must change this pattern if we expect to survive.

With the aim of sustaining life on Earth, clarity, cooperation, and compassion are key. Inevitably, in view of the points presented here, one logical goal would then be to end all animal exploitation.

Birds On Lake

So we come to the original point of the creation of laws to protect life and preserve freedoms.

Though legislations have been proposed, laws for animal welfare enacted, animal “welfare” laws are obviously not enough to curb the tide of the greatest massacre the world has ever known, a massacre of epic proportions (262) that will be the end of us, unless, and until, we recognize nonhuman animals rights of personhood, with the universal right to protection under laws that guarantee life and liberty without exploitation (263), where humans can no longer define any of them as property.

Recall the ancient barbarian adolescent who murders his faithful dog upon becoming a warrior man. As long as we allow this violence to cycle (264), if we continue to casually participate (265) in its violence by our habits of consumerism even from childhood (266), will we remain barbarians never truly having evolved? (267)

What we are pointing to (268) is how the violence humanity has visited upon nonhuman beings (269), in so many ways, for so many unnecessary purposes, for so long out of a perceived “need” and “superior” attitude of total domination (270) is far beyond any cognitive reasoning. Our human culture continues to do all this to animals without considering their sentience nor their own inherent rights as living beings (271), nor the preservation of natural ecosystems apart from “conservation” for our own self-interests. It is immoral, it is unjust, it is because this massacre (272) that has so soured human cultures (273), stripped human health, depleted Earth’s resources, spoiled her soil, air, water and higher atmosphere, that it cannot be denied any longer (274) and must STOP NOW, before we and millions of other species succumb to the 6th great extinction on this planet Earth (275), our SHARED home.

The author would like to credit the weblink sources for the invaluable information and visual testimonies in lending credence to the message herein. Without the dedication of organizations that strive to provide a clear view into truths otherwise hidden or masked in areas of gray, the public would be blind to these stark realities. These organizations and individuals have our undying gratitude, as do those who support and seek to develop alternatives. Such rampant abuses of life, the Earth’s air, water, and soil upon which we all rely to exist, must not be ignored lest we lose all. These are life matters for all, human and nonhuman alike. As Chief Seattle once said, “Man does not weave the web of life, he is merely a strand of it. Whatever he does to the web, he does to himself.” We cannot begin to consider attaining Sustainable Development Goals for the future of the planet without animal rights laws. Until we set a goal to End Animal Exploitation we will never evolve, in fact we as a species will simply cease to be.

Animal Exploitation – The Big Picture – References

Section 1 – Intro

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1. Heinrich, B. (2019, March). What the crow knows. The Atlantic. Retrieved from

2. Dominion [Motion picture]. (2018). Dominion Movement. Retrieved from

3. Carrington, D. (2018, November 3). Stop biodiversity loss or we could face our own extinction, warns UN. The Guardian. Retrieved from

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4. Free From Harm. (n.d.). 10 dairy facts the industry doesn’t want you to know. Retrieved from

5. Wikipedia. (2021, March 12). Cattle. Retrieved from

6. Wikipedia. (2021, February 15). Animal product.
Retrieved from

7. Fact Retriever. (2021). 98 important facts about animal cruelty. Retrieved from

8. El Hogar Animal Sanctuary. (n.d.). Animals used for transport. Retrieved from

9. Animal Defense and Anti-Vivisection Society of BC. (n.d.). The kill counter. Retrieved from

10. Mother Nature Network. (2014, July 15). 11 startling stats about Earth’s disappearing wildlife. Retrieved from

11. Sánchez-Bayo, F., & Wyckhuys, K. A. G. (2019). Worldwide decline of the entomofauna: A review of its drivers. Biological Conservation, 232, 8-27. Retrieved from

12. Carrington, D. (2014, September 29). Earth has lost half of its wildlife in the past 40 years, says WWF. The Guardian.
Retrieved from

13. Animal Welfare Institute. (n.d.). List of endangered species. Retrieved from

14. Orangutan Trekking Tours. (n.d.). How everyday use of palm oil products are killing orangutans. Retrieved from

15. Biological Diversity. (n.d.). The politics of extinction. Retrieved from

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16. ADAPTT. (n.d.). The kill counter. Retrieved from

17. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. (2018). Global Livestock Environmental Assessment Model (GLEAM). Retrieved from

18. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. (2016). The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2016: Contributing to food security and nutrition for all—Part 1. Retrieved from

19. Qura. (n.d.). Are chickens, cows and goats force bred, or do they breed naturally? Retrieved from

20. The Telegraph. (2018, April 26). Third of early deaths could be prevented by everyone giving up meat, Harvard says. Retrieved from

21. People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA). (n.d.). Animal testing 101. Retrieved from

22. People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA). (n.d.). If experiments on animals fail 90% of the time, why are they still done? Retrieved from

23. The Puppy Mill Project. (n.d.). About puppy mills. Retrieved from

24. Shelter Animals Count. (2016). 2016 animal sheltering statistics. Retrieved from

25. France 24. (2015, May 5). Moroccan authorities slaughter stray dogs ahead of FIFI visit. Retrieved from

26. Natural Blaze. (2017, December 14). Torture not culture – China and the dog and cat meat trade.
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27. The Guardian. (2014, July 15). US government called to account for agency killing 4 million animals in 2013. Retrieved from

28. Animal Equality. (n.d.). Abolition of animal exploitation: The journey will not begin while we are walking backwards. Retrieved from

29. Animal Legal Defense Fund. (2019, May 30). Coalition challenges factory farms free pass on reporting pollution in emergencies. Retrieved from

30. Duhaime’s Law Dictionary. (n.d.). Animal welfare definition. Retrieved from

Section 2 – Wildlife

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31. The Francis Crick Memorial Conference. (2012). The Cambridge Declaration On Consciousness. Retrieved from

32. Yale Environment 360. (2017, May 17). The rapid and startling decline of the world’s vast boreal forests. Retrieved from

33. Animals Asia Foundation. (n.d.). What is bear bile farming? Retrieved from

34. Environmental Investigation Agency. (2013, March 6). China’s tiger farms a threat to species. Retrieved from

35. Science and Engineering Ethics. (2011). The black market in China for tiger parts. Retrieved from

36. Las Vegas Review-Journal. (2019, February 12). Humane Society International takes a behind the scene look at Safari Club International meeting in Vegas. Retrieved from

37. PAWS. (n.d.). Enjoy the circus? The animals don’t. Retrieved from

38. CBS News. (2012, August 5). Disturbing footage of circus animal abuse leads to widespread reform: 60 Minutes report. Retrieved from

39. New Hampshire Ethics Commission. (n.d.). Circuses and road shows. Retrieved from

40. One Green Planet. (2017, May 31). Sad but true: This is what life in the circus is doing to the health of performance animals. Retrieved from

41. Born Free Foundation. (n.d.). Stereotypic behavior in captive wild animals: Zoochosis. Retrieved from

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42. Feature Shoot. (2015, September 17). The suffering of animals farmed for fur, in photos. Retrieved from

43. Smith, L. (2019). A federal ban on fur farming across the United States: Long overdue legislation. Southern University Law Review, 46(2), 263-286. Retrieved from

44. UNILAD. (2018, January 18). Horrifying footage of animals being electrocuted and beaten at fur farm. Retrieved from

45. Humane Society International. (n.d.). The fur trade: How animals are killed globally on fur farms. Retrieved from

46. Animals Asia Foundation. (n.d.). Stolen lives, animals captured in the wild. Retrieved from

47. The Guardian. (2019, August 12). Exclusive footage shows young elephants being captured in Zimbabwe for Chinese zoos. Retrieved from

48. Sun Sentinel. (2015, October 28). Final tally: Florida hunt killed 38 mother bears. Retrieved from

49. The Wilderness Society. (n.d.). The negative effect of trophy hunting. Retrieved from

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50. Wildlife Rescue. (n.d.). Animals in entertainment. Retrieved from

51. One Green Planet. (2017, April 14). How capturing wild animals to stock zoos fuels elephant extinction. Retrieved from

Section 3 – Oceans

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52. National Geographic Society. (2019, January 16). 2018 was the ocean’s hottest year. We’ll feel it for a long time. National Geographic. Retrieved from

53. Meyer, R. (2018, August 10). The age of humans: Oceans’ dead zones are getting worse globally due to climate change. Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved from

54. Schmidtko, S., Stramma, L., & Visbeck, M. (2017). Declining oxygen in the global ocean and coastal waters. Science, 359(6371). Retrieved from

55. Ocean Crusaders. (n.d.). Plastic statistics – Plastic ain’t so fantastic. Retrieved from

56. Jargon, J. (2019, January 3). How cellophane changed the way we shop for food. Forbes. Retrieved from

57. Marine Science Today. (2014, April 23). Life span of plastics is far too long. Retrieved from

58. ABC News. (2018, September 16). Half of all marine life lost in 40 years: WWF report. ABC News. Retrieved from

59. National Ocean Service. (n.d.). Can we clean up, stop, or end harmful algal blooms? Retrieved from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

60. Chossudovsky, M. (2015, January 18). “The ocean is dying”: Marine and animal life die offs, California coast. Global Research. Retrieved from

61. UNESCO-IOC. (n.d.). Facts and figures on marine pollution. Retrieved from

62. National Ocean Service. (n.d.). Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill. Effect on Marine Mammals and Sea Turtles. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved from

63. Roberts, D. (2014, October 7). Believe it or not, the Deepwater Horizon oil spill was even worse than previously thought. Grist. Retrieved from

64. Surfrider Foundation. (2021, February 2). Plastic pollution, updates, not the answer: The link between fossil fuels, single-use plastics, and climate change. Retrieved from

65. United Nations. (n.d.). Factsheet: Marine pollution. Retrieved from

66. National Ocean Service. (n.d.). How does oil impact marine life? National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved from

67. Dennis, B. (2018, October 24). A 14-year-long oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico verges on becoming one of the worst in U.S. history. The Washington Post. Retrieved from

68. Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. (n.d.). Gulf oil spill. Smithsonian Ocean. Retrieved from

69. Carrington, D., & Vaughan, A. (2019, June 2). Fracking – the reality, the risks and what the future holds. The Guardian. Retrieved from

70. Wylie, K. (2019, April 19). Remember the Deepwater Horizon oil spill disaster? The Trump administration wants you to forget. Oceana. Retrieved from

71. Beroza, G. C. (2019, June 17). Can fracking cause bigger, more frequent earthquakes? The Conversation. Retrieved from

72. Seismological Laboratory, UC Berkeley. (n.d.). Fracking, injecting and quakes. Retrieved from

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73. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. (n.d.). Estimated bycatch of marine mammals, seabirds, and sea turtles in the US commercial groundfish fishery, 2002-2009. Retrieved from

74. Carrington, D. (2018, February 15). Fish: The forgotten victims on our plate. The Guardian. Retrieved from

75. World Wildlife Fund. (n.d.). Bycatch – Overview. Retrieved from

76. The Ecologist. (2020, June 26). Horrific cruelty of underwater factory farms. Retrieved from

77. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. (2016). PART 1 World review of fisheries and aquaculture. Retrieved from

78. Sea of Life. (n.d.). Mass extinction. Retrieved from

Section 4 – Livestock

P 4-1

79. Waking Times. (n.d.). Why you should care about the meat industry. Retrieved from

80. Aeon. (2017, May 4). Wild thing: How and why did humans domesticate animals, and what might this tell us about the future of our species? Retrieved from

81. IPWatchdog. (2019, August 19). False advertising, free speech, and the fight over plant-based and lab-grown meat alternatives. Retrieved from

82. One Green Planet. (n.d.). ‘Milk life’ is no life at all for dairy cows. Retrieved from

83. Sentient Media. (2018, June 7). Sentient – undercover investigation inside a duck slaughterhouse. YouTube. Retrieved from

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84. Popper, M. (2018, January 10). A medical case for a whole food, plant-based diet. Op-Med. Retrieved from

85. Paddock, C. (2018, July 18). Nutrition 2018: New data confirm health benefits of plant-based diet. Medical News Today. Retrieved from

86. World Health Organization. (2021, June 16). Healthy diet. WHO. Retrieved from

87. Milton, K. (1999). The comparative anatomy of eating. SpringerLink. Retrieved from

88. Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia. (n.d.). Donor human milk: The next best thing to mom. Retrieved from

89. Thompson, J. (2018, April 5). 4 mistakes vegans make about their health. VegNews. Retrieved from

90. (2018, November 29). Food environments key to improved eating habits in deprived areas, say researchers. Retrieved from

91. Occupational Safety and Health Administration. (n.d.). Agricultural operations. OSHA. Retrieved from

92. Harvey, F. (2019, January 16). New plant-focused diet would ‘transform’ planet’s future, say scientists. The Guardian. Retrieved from

93. Plumer, B. (2014, July 21). Is the livestock industry destroying the planet? Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved from

94. (n.d.). Environmental consequences of fishing practices. Retrieved from

95. University of California – Davis. (2019, August 8). New report gives the lay of the land on grazing livestock’s climate impact. ScienceDaily. Retrieved from

96. Our World. (2013, April 30). Agriculture and food systems unsustainable. UNU. Retrieved from

97. PETA. (n.d.). Animal-derived ingredients list. Retrieved from

98. The Good Food Institute. (n.d.). What do we do? GFI. Retrieved from

99. Carrington, D. (2020, December 2). Lab-grown meat of the future is here – and may even sustainably fill demand. The Guardian. Retrieved from

100. Good Food Institute. (2021, April 20). Wild Type makes case for cell-based meats in economic terms alone. GFI. Retrieved from

101. Animal Equality. (n.d.). iAnimal: A unique immersive experience into the lives of farm animals. Retrieved from

102. PBS. (2015, September 7). Frontline: Modern Meat: Inside the slaughterhouse. Retrieved from

103. Animals Australia. (n.d.). Campaign videos: Make it Possible. Retrieved from

104. Kinder World. (2018, August 16). Animal slaughter – The madness behind killing animals for food, the madness behind meat – Gary Yourofsky. Retrieved from

105. World Animal Protection. (n.d.). Animal Protection Index: D. USA Recognition of animal sentience and prohibition of animal suffering, Presence of animal welfare legislation, E. Protecting animals used in farming. Retrieved from

106. Animals Australia. (n.d.). Slaughterhouse cruelty. Retrieved from

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107. Khazan, O. (2019, January 3). Will we ever stop eating animal meat? The Atlantic. Retrieved from

108. Organic Consumers Association. (2017, June 27). The hidden link between factory farms, toxic chemicals and human illness. Retrieved from

109. Animal Ethics. (n.d.). Animals used for food. Retrieved from

110. Dickson, E. (2014, December 10). In the belly of the beast. Rolling Stone. Retrieved from

111. Bunge, J., & Wilmot, S. (2018, August 16). 2.5 Billion Pounds of Meat Piles Up in U.S. as Production Grows, Exports Slow. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from

112. Michaëlsson, K., Wolk, A., Langenskiöld, S., Basu, S., Warensjö Lemming, E., Melhus, H., & Byberg, L. (2014). Milk intake and risk of mortality and fractures in women and men: Cohort studies. The BMJ, 349, g6015. Retrieved from

113. World Health Organization. (2015). Q&A on the carcinogenicity of the consumption of red meat and processed meat. Retrieved from

114. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (n.d.). Search results: 1,525 results returned for “Meat and Dairy Outbreaks”. Retrieved from

115. Stockman, L. J. (2018, December 14). Pulling farm antibiotics won’t fix all our superbug woes. Wired. Retrieved from

116. Harvey, F. (2017, July 18) Rise of Mega Farms: How the U.S. model of intensive farming is invading the world. The Guardian. Retrieved from

117. Reuters. (2018, August 29). African swine fever spreads to one of China’s biggest pig-farming regions. Yahoo News Singapore. Retrieved from

118. McLaughlin, T. (2018, September 11). What will happen when Hurricane Florence hits North Carolina’s massive pig manure lagoons? Quartz. Retrieved from

119. Forsberg, K. J., Reyes, A., & Wang, B. (2019). The Bacterial Mobile Resistome Transfer Network Connecting the Animal and Human Microbiomes. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 85(13), e00440-19. Retrieved from

120. Foley, B. (2019, March 20). A Lot More People Are Already Dying From Superbugs Than You Realize. ScienceAlert. Retrieved from

121. World Health Organization. (2020). Report of the WHO-China Joint Mission on Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Retrieved from

122. Key, T. J., Appleby, P. N., Crowe, F. L., Bradbury, K. E., Schmidt, J. A., Travis, R. C., & Overvad, K. (2014). Meat, dairy, and cancer 1,2,3,4. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 100(suppl_1), 386S-393S. Retrieved from

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123. Kummer, C. (2013, November 24). Big Agriculture Bullies And Lobbies To Keep Americans In The Dark. Forbes. Retrieved from

124. Environmental Integrity Project. (n.d.). Water Pollution From Slaughterhouses. Retrieved from

125. Smith, G. C. (2002). The Use of Drugs in Food Animals: Benefits and Risks, Food-Animal Production Practices and Drug Use. National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved from

126. FoodPrint. (n.d.). What Happens to Animal Waste? Retrieved from

127. Greshko, M. (2018, August 17). One of the World’s Largest Aquifers Is Disappearing. National Geographic. Retrieved from

128. Murphy, M. (2016, September 15). Why Saudi Arabia bought 14,000 acres of US farm land. Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved from

129. Khan, S. (n.d.). Animal Agriculture is the Leading Cause of Climate Change – A White Paper. Climate Healers. Retrieved from

130. Tilman, D., & Clark, M. (2014). Reducing food’s environmental impacts through producers and consumers. Science, 345(6194), 1103–1105. Retrieved from

131. Workers’ Rights. (n.d.). Slaughterhouse in Iowa takes advantage of child labor. National Council for Occupational Safety and Health. Retrieved from

132. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. (2019, December 10). Child labour in agriculture is on the rise, driven by conflict and disasters. Retrieved from

133. Carrington, D. (2018, March 5). Corporate lobbying is blocking food reforms, senior UN official warns. The Guardian. Retrieved from

134. Animal Legal Defense Fund. (2019, February 27). Iowa Ag-Gag Take Two –Taxpayers Will Foot the Bill to Defend Unconstitutional Proposed Law. Retrieved from

135. Baur, G. (2017, December 19). Animal agriculture is choking the Earth and making us sick. We must act now. The Ecologist. Retrieved from

136. Kilander, G. (2019, February 18). United States Trails Behind Mexico and India When It Comes to Animal Protection Laws, Report Finds. Newsweek. Retrieved from

Section 5 – Slaughterhouse

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137. Anderson, J. (2019, May 3). Abattoir jobs aplenty but few regional workers are spare. The Land. Retrieved from

138. Enfield, N. (2017, November 9). Meat Industry Is Struggling To Recruit – Because People Can’t Face Slaughtering Animals. Plant Based News. Retrieved from

139. Meat Packing: Packing industry faces labor shortage. (2019, March 28). Wyoming Livestock Roundup. Retrieved from

140. Enfield, N. (2018, December 14). Slaughterhouse Worker Opens Up: ‘It Was A Vision Of Hell’. Plant Based News. Retrieved from

141. NPR. (2023, April 27) New State Laws Are Rolling Back Regulations On Child Labor. Retrieved from

142. Animals Australia. (n.d.). Slaughterhouse cruelty: the human factor. Retrieved from

143. Kinder World. (n.d.). What Do Animals Feel Before Slaughter? Retrieved from

144. Animals Australia. (n.d.). Slaughterhouse cruelty — history repeating? Retrieved from

145. MacKinnon, K. (2018, May 10). A Call to Action: Psychological Harm in Slaughterhouse Workers. Yale Global Health Review. Retrieved from

146. Kinder World. (n.d.). Heartbreaking Video: Calf Begging The Abattoir Worker Not To Kill Him. Retrieved from

147. BBC. (2014, May 14). Ethics guide: Eating animals. Retrieved from

148. Invisible Children. (n.d.). The Perils of Indifference. Retrieved from

149. Renegade Tribune. (2019, June 5). The Psychological Toll Of Working In A Slaughterhouse. Retrieved from

150. Fitzgerald, A. J., & Kalof, L. (2009). A Slaughterhouse Nightmare: Psychological Harm Suffered by Slaughterhouse Employees and the Possibility of Redress through Legal Reform. ResearchGate. Retrieved from

151. Brown, M. (2011). Perpetration-induced traumatic stress: The psychological consequences of killing. W. W. Norton & Company.

152. Sargent, J. (2016, May 10). This Virtual Reality Slaughterhouse Could Turn You Vegetarian. VICE. Retrieved from

153. Animals Australia. (n.d.). VIDEO: Dairy calf cruelty investigation. Retrieved from

154. Stout, N. (2012, May 10). Killing Floor: The business of animal slaughter. Retrieved from CounterPunch.

155. Kinder World. (n.d.). Cow Slaughter – Video Exposing How Cows Are Killed In Slaughterhouses. Retrieved from

156. Animal Outlook. (2021, February 3). Animal Outlook Sues USDA (Again) Over Reckless High-Speed Chicken Slaughter. Retrieved from

157. PETA. (2004, September 20). Mutilations at AgriProcessors Slaughterhouse—(Full Version). Retrieved from

158. Baker, S. (2015, August 5). Claims abattoir workers drive up violent crime in local communities. Weekly Times Now. Retrieved from

159. MSU Animal Studies Program. (n.d.). Slaughterhouses and Increased Crime Rates. Retrieved from

160. (2017, July 12). Slaughterhouse workers are more likely to be violent, study shows. Retrieved from

161. Johns Hopkins University. (2017, April 10). Who’s responsible for regulating the health Retrieved from impact of factory farms? Hub.

162. Key, N., McBride, W. D., & Mathews, K. H. (2013). Distribution of Industrial Farms in the United States and Socioeconomic, Health, and Environmental Characteristics of Counties. Hidawi. Retrieved from

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163. Southern Poverty Law Center. (2019, May 15). New Human Rights Watch report highlights dangers in industry SPLC seeks to reform. Retrieved from

164. Cavalieri, P. (2017). Animal Rights, Human Rights: Entanglements of Oppression and Liberation. Bloomsbury Publishing.

165. Food Empowerment Project. (n.d.). Animal Agriculture Workers. Retrieved from

166. Goudreau, L. (2011, March 31). Illegal immigrants: The $1.85 trillion impact on the US economy. CBS News. Retrieved from

167. Estabrook, B. (2018, December 21). Who would pay $26,000 to work in a chicken plant? ProPublica. Retrieved from

168. PBS. (2018, October 17). Trafficked in America. Frontline. Retrieved from

169. Taylor, N. (2017, May 9) Slaughterhouses: The Language of Life, the Discourse of Death. In: Maher, J. (eds) The Palgrave International Handbook of Animal Abuse Studies. Palgrave Macmillan, London. Retrieved from

170. American Public Health Association. (2018). Improving Working Conditions for Health and Safety of Health Care Workers and Their Patients. from /2018/01/18/improving-working-conditions

Section 6 – Domestic/ Companion Animals

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171. Petsecure. (n.d.). A Guide to Worldwide Pet Ownership. Retrieved from

172. Bellis, M. (2019, June 25). How to Start a Pet Apparel Design Business. LiveAbout. Retrieved from

173. Gastropod. (2019, January 7). Why These Animals? Retrieved from

174. People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals. (n.d.). What is Speciesism? Retrieved from

175. Wikipedia. (2021, February 15). Animal Rights by Country or Territory. Retrieved from

176. Vox. (2017, November 3). The ethics of buying and eating meat. [Video]. YouTube. Retrieved from

177. Animal Legal Defense Fund. (n.d.). Federal laws and agencies involved with animal testing. Retrieved from

178. People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA). (n.d.). Animal testing 101. Retrieved from

179. PETA. (n.d.). Urge these universities to end cruel cat experiments. Retrieved from

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180. PETA. (n.d.). Tell universities to end cruel dog experiments. Retrieved from

181. Southeast ADA Center. (2020). Service animals and emotional support animals. Retrieved from

182. Horseracing Wrongs. (n.d.). Death watch. Retrieved from

183. El País. (2017, September 5). Spain’s abandoned animals find help from abroad. Retrieved from

184. Animal Ethics. (n.d.). Animals used as workers. Retrieved from

185. Arnot, S. (n.d.). Donkeys in India. Retrieved from

186. Equine Advocates. (n.d.). Equine abuse & neglect. Retrieved from

187. Humane Society of the United States. (2020). Animal cruelty facts and stats. Retrieved from

188. Shelter Animals Count. (n.d.). Intake and outcome database (IOD). Retrieved from

189. BBC News. (2018, March 22). The dog meat trade in Indonesia. [Video]. YouTube. Retrieved from

190. National Geographic. (2015, September 2). Inside the illegal wildlife trade. [Video]. YouTube. Retrieved from

191. Al Jazeera English. (2019, May 29). The ugly truth behind horse racing. [Video]. YouTube. Retrieved from

192. Smolaks, M. (2019, January 7). Mass boar cull described by Polish hunters as ‘sickening’. The Telegraph. Retrieved from

193. Clark, S. (2023, January 31) EXCLUSIVE: ‘They’re poisoning them.’ Animal lover launches last-ditch bid to save thousands of stray dogs as mass slaughter is announced to ‘beautify’ host city ahead of Seattle Sounders’ bid to win soccer’s Club World Cup. Daily Mail. Retrieved from

194. Mahbub, T. (2017, October 4). Of animals and their rights. Dhaka Tribune. Retrieved from

195. Hodgekinson, T. (2018, August 3). Wales to abandon badger cull and pursue vaccination programme. The Independent. Retrieved from

196. Horse Nation. (2017, March 15). Donkeys are under threat worldwide. Retrieved from

197. Smith, M. (2015, November 20). Dog meat is not a cultural prerogative. The Humane Society of the United States. Retrieved from

198. Kang, J. (2017, March 16). Countering the horrors of Asian dog meat trade. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved from

199. Humane Society of the United States. (2020, June 19). Yulin dog meat festival to begin this weekend, defying Chinese declaration that dogs are pets, not food.

200. TomoNews US. (2017, June 22). What you need to know about the Yulin dog meat festival [Video]. YouTube.

201. Wikipedia. (2021, September 13). Dog meat.

Section 7 – The Violence Link

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202. Arkow P. (2015). Recognizing and responding to cases of suspected animal cruelty, abuse, and neglect: what the veterinarian needs to know. Veterinary medicine (Auckland, N.Z.), 6, 349–359.

203. Arluke, A., & Madfis, E. (2013). Animal abuse as a warning sign of school massacres. Homicide Studies, 18(1), 7–22.

204. Holoyda, B. J., & Newman, W. J. (2016). Childhood animal cruelty, bestiality, and the link to adult interpersonal violence. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 47, 129–135.

205. Ascione, F. R. (2001). Linking animal cruelty to violence towards people. Animal Law, 7, 149-172. Retrieved from

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206. Humane Society of the United States. (n.d.). Taking suffering out of science. Retrieved from

207. People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA). (n.d.). What is vivisection? Retrieved from

208. People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA). (n.d.). Cruel brain experiments on animals. Retrieved from

209. Smith, M. (2021, April 7). Patient receives genetically modified pig heart. MedPage Today. Retrieved from

210. The Humane Society of the United States. (2019, September 25). Breaking the glass: Humane Society of the United States undercover investigation reveals monkey suffering inside contract testing laboratory. [Video]. YouTube.

211. One World Education. (n.d.). Animal testing is animal cruelty. Retrieved from

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212. People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA). (n.d.). Silver Spring monkeys. Retrieved from

213. People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA). (2017, June 29). The link between sex, violence, and vivisection. PETA.

214. University of Windsor. (n.d.). Welcome to the Canadian Centre for Alternatives to Animal Methods. Retrieved from

215. Knight, A., Bailey, J., Balcombe, J., & Hammad, A. (2015). Animal carcinogenicity studies: 1. Poor human predictivity. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 71(2), 257-262. doi: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2015.01.010

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216. Humane Society of the United States. (2021, March 3). Animal cruelty facts and stats. Retrieved from

217. Faunalytics. (2022, March 7). Global animal slaughter statistics: Charts. Retrieved from

218. EXPOSED Wildlife Conservancy. (2016). Canada’s War on Wolves – The Alberta Wolf Cull | Exposed Conservation | Ep 03. YouTube. Retrieved April 19, 2023, from

219. Li, Z. (2018, September 30). China’s super trawlers causing havoc as they plunder seas, plundering fish stocks, and harming marine environments worldwide. ABC News.

220. World Animal Foundation. (n.d.). Animal testing facts. Retrieved from

221. Humane Society of the United States. (n.d.). Ending animal fighting. Retrieved from

222. Last Chance for Animals (LCA). (n.d.). Pet overpopulation. Retrieved from

223. Merz-Perez, L., Heide, K. M., & Silverman, I. J. (2001). The link between animal cruelty and human violence. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, 70(8), 1-7.

224. FOUR PAWS International. (n.d.). Tackling the cruel dog and cat meat trade. Retrieved from

225. Humane Society Legislative Fund. (2017, December 7). U.S. Senate unanimously passes bill to prohibit animal cruelty, bestiality.

226. McCulloch, M. M., & Reisner, I. R. (2016). Interpersonal violence and the abuse of animals. Journal of Social Work Education, 52(4), 482-495.

227. Michael Markarian. (2017, May 3). Deliver us from evil’s bestiality loophole [Blog post]. Humane Society of the United States.

228. Animal Legal Defense Fund (ALDF). (n.d.). What to do if you witness animal cruelty online.

229. Holoyda, B.J. (2022, June 12) Bestiality Law in the United States: Evolving Legislation with Scientific Limitations. Animals (Basel). 12(12):1525. Retrieved from,court%2Dmartial%20%5B41%5

230. Halle, K. (2019, February 21). Fortnite obsession of Alesha MacPhail’s killer revealed as he’s found guilty of raping and murdering girl, 6. The Sun.

Section 8 – Expanding The Link

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231. Justice Clearinghouse. (2015, June 23). The link between animal and human abuse: An interview with John Thompson.

232. Business Insider. (2012, August 16). 9 wars that were fought over commodities.

233. Fox News. (2015, July 22). Wars that were started or almost started over food.

234. Cho, R. (2014, December 21). Why the next world war will be fought over food. Fortune.

235. Froese, R., Schilling, J. The Nexus of Climate Change, Land Use, and Conflicts. Curr Clim Change Rep 5, 24–35 (2019).

236. Pearce, F. (2018, November 30). The little-known link between global water shortage, war and migration. BBC News.

237. Loyola, G. (2022, April 28). Ukraine war has always been about resources: Energy, oil, gas, commodities, agriculture. Foreign Policy.

238. Skuce, J. (2021, August 16). How water shortages are brewing wars. BBC Future.

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239. Kirchgaessner, S. (2018, August 7). Iran braces for new round of US economic sanctions. The Guardian.

240. VOA News. (2019, February 20). US, China wrap up trade talks in Beijing. VOA News.

241. Mullany, L. (2023, March 15). China’s pig farms battle new surge of African swine fever. Reuters.

242. Doctorow, C. (2018, November 13). Chinese pigs genetically modified to resist major swine fever outbreak. Boing Boing.

243. Condon, B. (2017). Foreign Purchases of U.S. Agricultural Land: Facts, Figures, and Assessment of Real Threats. Center for Strategic and International Studies.

244. O’Connor, C. (2016, January 15). Saudi Arabia buying up farmland in US Southwest. CNBC.

245. USGS. (2021, March 23). USGS: High Plains Aquifer groundwater levels continue to decline. USGS News Release.

246. Larson, R. (2011). Food Insecurity and the Threat to Global Stability and Security in the 21st Century. Inquiries Journal.

247. Goh, E. (2017, November 19). Conflict in South Sudan, with hyperinflation & food insecurity, threatening famine for 2018. DW News.

248. Faria, C. (2022, March 23). Food over feed: War in Ukraine highlights need for dietary change. Sentient Media.

Section 9 – Root of Violence

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249. Lockwood, R. (2010). The link between cruelty to animals and violence towards people. Animal Law, 16(1), 143-159.

250. National Anti-Vivisection Society. (n.d.). What is animal law? NAVS.

251. American Security Today. (2019, May 30). Tracking animal cruelty as a precursor to crimes [Video]. YouTube.

252. Wikipedia contributors. (2022, April 12). Norse rituals. In Wikipedia.

253. The Independent. (2017, August 22). Ancient Russian men sacrificed and ate dogs in rite of passage into adulthood.

254. Leake, J. (2014, November 3). What drives people to torture animals? Independent.

255. Wikipedia contributors. (2022, February 25). Animal sacrifice. In Wikipedia.

256. Wright, K. (2005). Divine and human violence: The ethics of sacrifice in the later Middle Ages. In S. MacDonald & C. Ingham (Eds.), Animal agents: Animals, humans, and posthumanism (pp. 257-272). Brill.

257. Wikipedia contributors. (2022, March 27). Holocaust (sacrifice). In Wikipedia.

258. European Society of Dog and Animal Welfare. (n.d.). Animal sacrifice. ESDAW.

259. Max, S. (2017, January 12). Animal testing/cruelty behind mankind’s progress.

260. Jegatheesan, B. (2016, November 16). The psychology of animal torture. Psychology Today.

261. Animals Australia. (2012, March 22). Graphic content: Lamb slaughter in Australia [Video]. YouTube.

Section 10 – Mass Extinction

P (10-1)

262. Kinder World. (2019, December 7). Pigs burned alive in China [Video]. YouTube.

263. Nonhuman Rights Project. (n.d.). Home.

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264. Rosenberg, G., & Dutkiewicz, J. (2023, April 5). The viral story of a girl and her goat explains how the meat industry indoctrinates children. Vox. Retrieved April 19, 2023, from

265. Thibodeau, L. (2017). Meat and morality: Alternatives to factory farming [PDF]. Rivier Academic Journal, 13(1), 1-11.

266. Adams, C. J. (2019, January 28). The global food system is killing us and the planet. The Guardian.

267. The Last Pig. (n.d.). The Last Pig [Film].

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268. European Parliament. (2020, January 9). Biodiversity loss: What is causing it and why is it a concern?

269. Simon, D. (2013, July 3). Measuring the cost of cruelty. Meatonomics.

270. Anderson, A. (2017). The beast within: Factory farming and the abuse of animals and humans. International Comparative Sociology, 58(3), 227-244.

271. Nonhuman Rights Project. (2020, December 4). NHRP statement on Justice Fahey’s concurring opinion in Happy the elephant case.

272. National Geographic. (2014, October 2). Factory farming: The truth about the meat industry [Video]. YouTube.

273. Richards, B. (2015, August 14). How does animal cruelty affect society? Quora.

274. American Bar Association. (2021). Enshrining animal sentience into law. Tort Trial & Insurance Practice Section.

275. Carrington, D. (2018, November 3). Stop biodiversity loss or we could face our own extinction, warns UN. The Guardian.

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